- Atlanta Beige Book: Economic activity expanded at a moderate pace. Labor markets remained tight and wage pressures grew. Nonlabor costs rose. Retail sales strengthened.
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- Richmond Beige Book: The regional economy continued to expand at a modest rate. Growth continues to be constrained by labor shortages and supply chain issues.
- Philadelphia Beige Book: Business activity grew moderately during the current Beige Book period—faster than the prior period—but remained below pre-pandemic levels.
- Cleveland Beige Book: The District’s expansion picked up a bit after slowing during the summer and early fall. Contacts reported that supply challenges continued to limit sales and output growth.